In the present article analyzes of the international treaties and agreements that today form the international nuclear nonproliferation regime are analyzed. It is proved that the basis for such regime is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of the 1968 (NPT). Major shortcomings of the NPT are revealed and ways to improve are suggested. On the example of incident with a Japanese vessel "Fukuryu Maru" ("Lucky Dragon") that happened to be a part of nuclear weapon tests in the Marshall Islands, concludes the illegitimacy of such tests. After the detailed analyzes of the events chronology with the vessel "Fukuryu Maru " author draws attention to the questions that remained unanswered even after the ex gratia compensating damages by the U.S. In particular, it remains unclear whether this included compensation of the environment and marine living resources damages. When speaking about possible use of nuclear weapons for military purposes, author points to the potential negative consequences to which such use may lead, and in particular to the recognized by most experts phenomenon of "Nuclear winter".
nuclear weapons test, non-proliferation, nuclear winter, ecological consequences, nuclear-weapon free zone, museum, Fukuryu Maru.