Советы адвокатам: речь и как донести ее в суде

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Краткая информация об авторе (ах): 

Старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков юридического факультета РУДН

Аннотация: 

В работе подчеркивается важность правильного построения речи адвоката, ее убедительности, оборотов, темпа и пр. Дается перевод этих понятий на русский язык.

Ключевые слова: 

Адвокат, суд, речь, убедительный язык, дар речи.

Nowadays far too many universities and institutions promise to provide the graduates with a diploma of lawyers. A big part of them get those diplomas of interpreters in Law. When the country did not have such acontroversial thing as Uniform State Exams, we were able to assess the future student’s ability of public speaking, eloquence and so on. Now, when many of them consider Dostoyevsky F.M.being a radio, teachers are facing a problem of disability of a part of the students to express his/her opinion clearly, not to say anything about translating or even worse – interpreting. Being digitally native, today’s young people prefer simplified sms-language to classic one, depriving themselves of the beauty of both source language (L1) and target language (L2). Legal English (as well as legal Russian) includes a great deal of legalese, Latin words. It is needless to remind that some words, sounding the same or almost the same, may have other meanings in these languages. For other ideas or notions Russian has not invented a good translation or interpretation just because of different jurisdictions. A lawyer’s code should be familiar to every member of that community. The New York Lawyer’s Code of Professional Responsibility can be seen at http://www.law.cornell.edu/ethics/ny/code/NY_CODE.HTM. We just want to depict some of very important features. Presenting his/her arguments a lawyer should remember about the strength of them. Their strength presented in court will significantly affect the outcome of the case. So we can mention what the strength of an argument depends on: the clarity of reasoning; the quality of the evidence presented to support it; the lawyer’s skill in using language to convey ideas (without any desire to start a discussion which of the three is more important). As a linguist I will mention the aspects of speech as well as the writing competence. A lawyer should be able to prepare a lawsuit and develop arguments, do persuasive writing in the closing argument and make a vivid speech. A lawyer will use persuasive language in many different situations: when arguing in court, negotiating a contract, writing a memo proposingaction/actions to a client or discussing the choice of a candidate to fill a position at a law firm. On way to emphasise ideas is to begin a sentence with a phrase that signals importance. You can start the sentence with It is important that… or It is important to realize that… Emphatic stress is another important key way for a lawyer. Within a sentence in spoken language (in our case it is English) some words carry stress according with the natural rhythm of the language. On the other hand, emphatic stress involves stressing words more than in natural flow of the language to convey the importance of a point. When it comes to court speaking we can mention great lecturers who have able speech (талантливаяречь). Being also arresting (захватывающая) this speech will attract us more. In an American movie “My cousin Winnie” one of the lawyers got nervous and started stammering. Hisemotional speech (темпераментнаяречь) was not articulateat all(членораздельная). That is why it did not make any impression on the jury and that is why the accused in the first degree crimeresigned the lawyer. The prosecuting counsel, on the other hand, made an impressive speech (яркаяречь), it wasinspiring(вдохновляющая /зажигательная). His complimentary speech (приветственнаяречь) was absolutely persuasive (убедительная) and feeling(прочувствованная). Yet hissometimes wanton speech (витиеватаяречь, безудержноекрасноречие) could not prevent the justice to be executed. Those who have seen the film may want to argue saying that Winnie’s (the two suspects’ sudden lawyer and a relative) speech was clumsy (нескладная) and colourless(бледная /бесцветная/ речь) but he won. But there were other circumstances for the justice to celebrate glory. Concluding speech (заключительнаяречь) as well as complimentary one should be powerful(яркая /впечатляющая), fiery(пламенная /зажигательная) to be able to persuade the jury and the judge(s). PubliusTerentiusAfer, known in English as Terence in his play HeautonTimorumenos (The Self-Tormentor) wrote “I am human, I consider nothing human alien to me”. (This quote later was used by Karl Marx and many of us used to think the latter had the “patent” for the quote). If common, lay people or politicians may allow this, so can the lawyers. Andthisishavingaverbaldiarrhea (словесный понос, недержание речи; болтливость, разглагольствование). It usually happens when you do not have anything to say but you have been paid already orare to be paid for your advice or it is an attempt to justify your costs. These smooth words(сладкиеречи) have nothing to do in court. For a while a lawyer may attract the jurors, make them sympathize the defendant or accused, but soon, if the speech is not worthy of the occasion (речьнеподобаетслучаю) the jurors will change their attitude. Aset speech (заранееподготовленнаяречь) undoubtedly is more philippic (обличительнаяречь), but a bookish way of speaking(книжнаяречь) is something which will never have a rhetorical effect because a lawyer must havehad rhetorical effort(речь, построеннаяповсемправиламораторскогоискусства). At the same time plain language(прямая /откровеннаяречь) is a welcome thing, especially when it is weighty(важная, содержательная). As it was mentioned above today’s generation (many specimen of them) does not have faculty of speech(дарречи)to deliver a speech(произнестиречь) to address the audience(обратитьсяксобравшимся). Let us not forget that man is distinguished from the animals by the gift of speech.A lawyer must have some knowledge in psychology, particularly in NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Pragramming). For this purpose a lawyer may accompany his speech with gestures(сопровождатьсвоюречьжестикуляцией), but be careful: too much gesture can distract. Before you enter the courtroom you need to prepare thearchitecture of speech(строй /построениеречи) and use words to befit the occasion(речь, приличествующаяслучаю). In one occasion you may use long words beloved of bureaucrats(длинныеречи, милыесердцубюрократов), at the sametime you may as well chew smb.'s ear off(амер. сл. доконатького-л. длиннойречью, нотацией). When it comes to close a speech(заключитьречь /выступление) brevity of it (краткость), the gift of the gab(бойкостьречи), the composition of speech(построениеречи) will come across very well(произведетбольшоевпечатление). If you lost your temper and burst into angry words(разразитьсягневнойречью, раскричаться), then you may be sure that this time most probably you might not arise strong feeling on all sides(речьнесмоглаглубоковзволноватьвсехприсутствующих). Alternatively, if one’sspeech was marked by felicities(речьотличаласьяркими и удачнымиоборотами) and the lawyer did not onlygabble (off) a speech (отбарабанитьречь), then no one can say that the speech has no guts in it(егоречьнеубедительна)or it was impassioned (нестрастная) but what he said was music to my ears (егоречи /слова/ звучалидляменякакмузыка). Excellent and skilled speakers will pepper their speech with jokes(пересыпатьсвоюречьшутками). A speech devised to impress(речь, рассчитаннаяна (внешний) эффект), its points might conclude poems and have the drift of a speech(скрытыйсмыслречи). Talented speakers will point everything they say with good examples (иллюстрировать свою речь яркими примерами). Theirspeechisalsothick-sownwithproverbs (речь, изобилующая поговорками), seasonedwithirony (речь, сдобренная иронией), taggedwithjokes (пересыпан шутками) orturnsofspeech (обороты речи). During deliberations or when you spiel off an address(толкнутьречь) there can be a spice of irony(ироническаянотка). It is inevitably better to have the skeleton of a speech(набросок /конспект/ речи) than deliver an unprepared speech(произнестиречьэкспромтом). Thus, a lawyer mustprepare his speech well. Spend a little time thinking of what you are going to say and the kind of audience you are going to address. Remember complimentary salutation at the beginning of the speech(в началеречиприветствоватьаудиториюнесколькимилестнымизамечаниями). The first and last sections (compliments and tail-end) of your speech are crucial. Give them a little extra thought, perhaps even writing out your opening and closing lines and learning them off. Structure your speech: one point should lead into the next. Pepper your speech with quotes. This will add power to what you say. For this purpose you should read more and not just watch cartoons or MTV. Use appropriate humor, jokes, funny stories to get your audience with you. The judge and the jurors are common people in their ordinary life. Eye contact with your audience is very important, panning back and forth across the width of the room so that you appear to be speaking to everyone directly. Avoid reading the entire speech from a script but use cue cards to remind you of the next point. Smile,be sincere, avoiding over-statement or exaggerated flattery. If you look professional, you act naturally, and you are a Professional. Have something in your fist (your sleeve) but as a last and crucial argument. As it has been said above, emphasise you place on certain words is very important. You are not a statue to stand where you are: a little moveis necessary. Change the intensity of your speech and people are all ears. Remember the duration of speech. We all have anything else to do, not only sit in the courtroom even if it is our profession. It's better to be a little too short than a little too long. Visit searchable database andhttp://www.ahajokes.com/lawyer_jokes.html, http://www.coolfunnyjokes.com/Funny-Jokes/Lawyer-Jokesby lawyers to read and choose some good examples and next time when you step in a courtroom, you will be better prepared. And read, read and read clever books training your faculty of speech. SOURCES [1] English, Cambridge University Press 2006; [2] http://www.law.cornell.edu/ethics/ny/code/NY_CODE.HTM; [3] http://www.just-english.ru/speech.htm

ЛИТЕРАТУРА: 

[1] Английский язык, издательство Кембриджского университета 2006; [2] http://www.law.cornell.edu/ethics/ny/code/NY_CODE.HTM; [3] http://www.just-english.ru/speech.htm

Заголовок En: 

Tips to lawyers: speech and its delivery in court

Аннотация En: 

The thesis underlines the importance of strength of arguments in court and the language to be used there, language features to be better understood and assessed. The Russian equivalents are also given.

Ключевые слова En: 

Lawyer, court, speech, persuasive language, delivery of speech, faculty of speech